PRIRODNO-GEOGRAFSKA OBILJEJA OTOKA PREMUDE U ZADARSKOM ARHIPELAGU
JOSIP FARIÈIÆ Izvorni znanstveni èlanak
DAMIR MAGA UDK: 911.2.551 (497.5)
MAA SURIÆ Original scientific paper
Filozofski fakultet u Zadru
Faculty of Philosophy in Zadar
Department of Geography
Premuda (8.61 km2) nalazi se u SZ dijelu Zadarskog arhipelaga, u junohrvatskom (dalmatinskom) otoèju. U sklopu projekta geografske obrade malih hrvatskih otoka, ovdje su obraðena obiljeja njegove prirodne osnove. Analizirani su poloaj, velièina i obuhvat, geoloki sastav i graða, geomorfoloke, klimavegetacijske, pedoloke, hidrogeografske znaèajke i ivi svijet. Istaknuti su: vanost karbonatne graðe, povoljne klimatske znaèajke (padaline, temperature, vjetrovi i sl.), nestaica vode, znaèenje autohtone vegetacije. Posebna panja u radu pridaje se obiljejima mora oko otoka (fizièki, kemijski i bioloki parametri). Naseljenost i vrednovanje otoka ovisili su o prirodnogeografskim potencijalima, a i suvremene moguænosti razvoja zasnivaju se na njima. Rad daje i iscrpnu literaturu dosad objavljenih i neobjavljenih tekstova koji tretiraju ovaj otok o kome je do sada u geografiji malo posebno pisano.
Kljuène rijeæi: Premuda (otok), prirodno-geografska obiljeja,
The island of Premuda (8.61 km2) is located on the SW part of the Zadar archipelago and makes part of the South Croatias (Dalmatian) group of islands. The paper treats the properties of its natural basis and is related to the geographical project on small Croatian islands. It examines the position of the island, its size and extent, geomorpholo-gy, geological composition and structure, climatovegetable characteristics, pedological and biogeographical features and waters. A special emphasis is put on the importance of its carbonate structure, favourable climatic conditions (precipitation, temperatures, winds, etc.), lack of water and importance of its autochthonous vegetation. Particular attention is paid to the properties of the sea arround the island (physical, chemical and biological parametres). Population number and valuation of the island depended on its physicogeographical potential, and the recent possibilities of its development are based on it too. The paper contains ample literature of texts published up to the present and some never published connected with the island, which (from geographical point of view) has not been specilally treated so far.
Key words: Premuda (island), physicogeographical features
Damir Maga, Josip Farièiæ, Maa Suriæ: Basic Physicogeographical Characteristics of the Premuda Island in the Zadar Archipelago.
The island of Premuda (8,61 km2 and 73 inhabitants in 1991.) is one of the small Croatias islands on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. It is situated at the very end of NW part of the Zadar archipelago in the Molat-Silba group of islands. Geographically, it has been poorly elaborated so far. The paper gives its basic physicogeographical characteristics, which is connected with the project on small Croatian islands. The first part of the paper treats the position of the island, its size and extention. Premuda is the 33rd island according to its area and 39th as regards population on the Croatias islands (1991.). The highest point is Varh (88 m). The island of karda (SE of Premuda), the islets Grujica, Kamenjak and Stronjak (or Lutronjak, or kolj; NW of Premuda), and rocks Hripa, Masarine, Plitka Sika, Veli Braèiæ and Mali Braèiæ (W of Premuda) belong to the cadastral commune of Premuda. Administratively, Premuda belongs to the city of Zadar. It is an autonomous cadastral comune and Roman Catholic parish. The village consists of the nucleus in the NW part, some way off the shore, and the detached part along the bay Krijal, which are being gradually joined by recent building. Being protected from southern and western quadrant winds (waves) by a range of islets and cliffs (Masarine and others), in the past Krijal served as a shelter for fishermen.
Premudas geological sediments are exclusively carbonate stones pertaining to the Cretaceous period (alb-cennoman-touron). The nearby range of islets and cliffs along SW coast of the island is somewhat younger and dates from the Tertiary period. The sediments are mainly composed of limestone, some of them with intercalations or alternating with dolomites.
Considering the discovered fossil fauna of certain calcareous layers, they can be regarded as chondrodont, rudist and foraminiferal limestone. Tectonically, the island forms an anticline while adjacent synclinnes were drowned by sea. There are several smaller unexamined speleological objects. The coast of the island (25,46 km long) is well carved. The coast line index is 2,45. The SW coast, with numerous coves, is slightly better carved. Coves follow in a row from NW to SE: Burnje Nozdre, Garbinje Nozdre, Golubinka, Krijal and Porat (Premudas port, the largest bay on the island), and smaller coves: Draga, Garbinja Prisika, Zaporat, Peèena, iroka, Smokvica, Letnja and Dobra. On the NE coast there are larger coves (from NW to SE) Kalani bok, Loza (see line quay), Sridnji, Driveni, Burnja Prisika, Kalpiæ, Pastirski bok, Maranski i Burnji Prislig. Morphologically, coves represent lower drowned parts of dry valleys. The shores are rocky except those where there are pebbles.
Flat areas and dolines are used for gardening, and slopes are used as olive groves and less frequently as vineyards. The island surfaces are divided into properties by mociras (horizontal stone walls) and trmezals (vertical ones). The authors emphasize a numerous and interesting toponimy connected with the terrain morphology. Nowadays arable areas are mostly neglected and covered with autochthonous vegetation. Pedologically, there are not remarkable soil zones. There is a question of shallow and poor terra rossa developed from carbonate decay. There is a brown to greybrown fine granular soil in the locality of Jama. In the places with richer vegetation there is more humus.
There is no superficial running water on the Premuda island. There are several smaller sources and springs with brackish water. Two wells have been dug: in the cove Loza, and Zdenac. For lack of water, the inhabitants have built two public cisterns, and the owners of new houses have their own cisterns. There are also two pools.
The authors study in particular the sea water surrounding the island. Physical properties of the sea (depth, sea bottom, temperatures, density, transparency, colour, currents, tides, waves) are elaborated in accordance with accessible data. Chemical characteristics follow (salinity, oxigen concentration, pH factor, the quantity of silicate, phosphate and nitrate, ammoniac) and bioecological data (organic world: plankton, nekton, benthos). Other physical features presented here are climatic indicators connected with insolation, global radiation and cloudness. Temperature data follow (annual t. about 15,2oC, about 23,7oC in July, about 7,0oC in January) precipitation (922 mm annually) and winds. Mediterranean climate determines adequate vegetation. The island of Premuda belongs to the climazonal association of holm oak (Quercus ilex). Mediterranean sorts are numerous. High and low maquis and garigues predomine, and sporadically even larger specimens of trees grow. On some locations, veritable autochthonous forests grow.
The paper ends with elaborating the significance of physicogeographical basis for the social and economic development of the island. Attention is payed to the population (since the oldest time of Mediterranean policulture), fishing and navigation. Cultivation of olives, figs, vegetables and grape vine (the last in decrease), has considerable importance as well as growing small cattle (sheep, goat). Restrictive factors of development (watter deficiency, lack of fertile soils, isolation) are analysed, too. The influence of regional centre is also important as well as the prospects of tourist facilities (nautical tourism).